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Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

The AFUE rating for an all-electric furnace or boiler is between 95% and . The lower values are for units installed outdoors because they have greater jacket heat loss. However, despite their high efficiency, the higher cost of electricity in most parts of the country makes all-electric furnaces or boilers an uneconomic choice.

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Phosphate Hideout

hydroxide. If insufficient boiler water alkalinity is being maintained, magnesium can combine with phosphate. Magnesium phosphate has a surface charge that can cause it to adhere to tube surfaces and then collect other solids. For this reason, alkalinity is an important part of a phosphate precipitation program. Phosphate Treatment Alone Not Optimal

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Q1: What is the boiler efficiency?

Boiler Efficiency = (%) (Fuel consumption per hour :kg) × (Fuel low calorific heating value : kJ/kg) h2: The ratio enthalpy of feed water (kJ/kg) h1: The ratio enthalpy of steam (kJ/kg) The initial value of boiler efficiency for Z Boiler is depending on the boiler type, but it is normally 80-88%.

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5-2 Recovery Boiler Water Treatment - TAPPI

Phosphate (PO 4) 6Amount of Sodium Phosphate Dissolved in Boiler Water 6Units: ppm PO 4 = mg/L PO 4 6Purpose: ¾Stabilizes pH ¾Precipitates Hardness as Softer Deposits ¾Backup Indication of Hardness Contamination Phosphate/pH Control Curves 10.5 10.0 9.5 8.5 9.0 8.0 61014 18 22 26 30 p H Phosphate, mg/L 3.0 2.4 Na: PO M olar Ra 4 tio E q u il b r i u m L i n e ( 1 p

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Purchasing Energy-Efficient Large Commercial Boilers

Oil. Hot Water. E c ≥ 88.5. Large Oil-Fired Steam. >2,500,000 Btu/h and ≤10,000,000 Btu/h. Oil. Steam. E t ≥ 85.5. *Both thermal efficiency (E t) and combustion efficiency (E c) are based on 10 CFR Part 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

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WATER CHEMISTRY AND CORROSION - MISSING KNOWLEDGE

Phosphate hideout is a phenom-enon that causes boiler water control difficulties. It is defined as the disappearance, by precipita-tion or absorption, of the ionic phosphate (PO 4) species, in the boiler water under high heat transfer or high load conditions. When the high heat flux or high load condition is reduced, the species (phosphate) returns from

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Working Of Boiler- Parts, Efficiency, Classification And

The classification of the boiler is based on the following criteria: According to the relative passage of water and hot gases: Water-tube boiler: A boiler in which the water flows through Water-tube boiler: A boiler in which the water flows through the tubes that are surrounded by hot combustion

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Consulting - Specifying Engineer | Boilers: Types

Mar 22, 2013 · There are two types of efficiencies with fuel-fired boilers: combustion efficiency and thermal efficiency. Combustion efficiency is the percentage of chemical potential energy of the fuel that is converted during the combustion process to produce thermal energy.

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Phosphate Hideout

RECOVERY BOILER WATER TREATMENT Figure 2 - Objectives of Treat…

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